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It is not inflammable, will not burn, and will not explode
Written by   
, 30 2006

Novaya gazeta

an anesthesiologist on the gas used to release the hostages at Nord-Ost.


My collocutor is a well-known Moscow anesthesiologist, scientist, and researcher. Fornow we will not reveal his name. If, however, investigators wish to acquaint themselves in earnest with his version of the events at Dubrovka, then he is prepared to give hisname.

The official investigation recorded the name of the substance, which was allegedly used in the theatrical center at Dubrovka, though far from immediately. Supposedly it was Fentanyl. Minister of Public Health Shevchenko personally stated that a substance based on Fentanyl was used at Dubrovka. Butbased on what should we not believethis?
What is Fentanyl? Itis a chemical substance widely used in clinical practice, in anesthesiology for analgesia. Itonly exists is the form of a solution, given intravenously, and in rare cases intramuscularly and intradermal. Itis a synthetic analgesic, a close relative of Morphine, in the opiate family ofdrugs.
In clinical practice for the last 40years, this form of Fentanyl, which is used in injections, has been sufficient. Special production of this preparation in a gaseous form makes little sense from a clinical, or even a military standpoint. Formilitary use there are single-use 'monoject' syringes of various narcotic analgesics.
But here now is the most essential property of all preparations in the opium group there is a single specific antidote for all opiates, Naloxone. There, at 'Nord-Ost', Naloxone was injected into hostages, and in reality, it helped noone.
You wish to say that those who survived were not saved because they received timely injections of the antidote Naloxone? Doesthis mean that the use of this preparation was in general useless? DoI understand you correctly, that the special forces did not use a substance belonging to the opiate group, specifically Fentanyl, but something else?

Yes, exactly, this is what Iwish to prove. Thefact that the application of Naloxone of useless has been proven already. Fentanyl has no smell, but the substance used at Dubrovka did. Every anesthesiologist who has used Fluothane (known in the West as Halothane) in surgery knows this smell. There was an anesthesiologist among the hostages at 'Nord-Ost', and he detected a particular smell, similar to Chloroform. Specifically, this is what Fluothane smells like. Theanesthesiologist correctly determined that the 'mythical gas' used at the theater was the inhalation anesthetic Fluothane.
German doctors, who examined two hostages from 'Nord-Ost', found Halothane in the hostages' blood samples, but they were also astonished to find traces of Naloxone as well. Thisspecific antidote for opiate substances is absolutely useless against Fluothane.
Fluothane (Halothane) is a colorless, easily evaporating liquid. Itsvapors have a powerful narcotic action. Under a Halothane anesthesia it is possible to carry out any surgical procedure.
The application of this substance, however, requires very thorough control of its introduction into the organism. Forits use in anesthesia, a special apparatus is used, which makes it possible to exactly control the dose entering the patient.
If we use Fluothane uncontrolled, then it is easy to send the patient from the so-called 3rd surgical stage of narcosis to the 4th stage of narcosis, which causes the direct threat to life. Inthe 4th stage of narcosis, there is severe respiratory depression, which leads to its cessation, and the patient'sdeath.
Point number one: It is possible to assume that those who were located nearest to the source of the Fluothane vapor received the highest dose of the narcotic, and would perish on the spot from the cessation of respiration. Thisexplains why the loss of life among the hostages was so rapid, and it was already occurring inside the theater building.
Point number two: It is known that if blood levels of adrenaline are elevated, then inducing Halothane narcosis will increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias dramatically, up to fibrillation of both ventricles and heart failure.
Since many of the hostages were under a state of severe emotional stress, it is possible to assume that their levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline were markedly increased. Inthat case, those who were located further from the source of the Fluothane vapors would perish from cardiac failure.
Point number three: In a number of cases of Fluothane anesthesia, there are disturbances of liver function, up to the development of clinical toxic hepatitis (sometimes with jaundice). There were causes of liver function disturbances among those who survived.
In all likelihood, those who made decision about the use of Fluothane first considered it on its merits: it is not inflammable, it will not burn, and will not explode, in contrast withether.
How should they have tried to save people, if they actually used Fluothane?

The antagonist of Fluothane is oxygen. Thismeans that those subjected to its action needed to be brought out into the fresh air. Butinside the building they needed to put oxygen equipment to use immediately. Those who were in a state of narcotic sleep needed to have an airway introduced, i.e., a special small rubber tube, introduced through the mouth, which would prevent the tongue from falling backwards and blocking the windpipe.
Only oxygen helps to drive Fluothane from the organism during this critical 5 10minutes. Instead of this, however, they injected this useless Naloxone.
So why then, if they were using Fluothane, did they recommend that the doctors use Naloxone as an antidote?

That is a question for a criminal investigation.
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